Robert Max Jackson. This guide stresses the systematic causal analysis of gender inequality. The analytical questions raised and the readings listed consider why and how gender inequality arises, varies across and within societies, persists over generations, produces conformity by individuals and institutions, resists change, and sometimes changes dramatically.
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Note: — This "" serves to provide both an extended reading boy prostitutes jackson on gender inequality and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list well over articles are included below. The readings are almost all articles with important books represented by the related scholarly articlesand almost all readings are available on the internet. However, most of the links have the DOI or the JStor listed at the end of the citation or a generic, non-NYU link is embedded in them which can be extracted for use elsewhere.
Anyone having access to online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to locate the articles through these. The scope of the topics and materials. The advance of our knowledge about gender inequality over the past half century has been remarkable.
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Research on every conceivable aspect of gender relationships and gender status has been unending, across many academic fields, pursued from the widest possible range of theoretical frameworks and methodological strategies. Still, we face many as yet unanswered questions and find it difficult to reach consensus about the meaning prostitutrs implications of much that we have discovered. The accumulation of contentious knowledge has made mastery of this field challenging, with the unfortunate result that many people today rely on arguments and explanations as flawed and simplistic prostitites they were a half century ago.
The topics below address key analytical questions facing any serious effort to understand and explain gender inequality. What do we mean by gender inequality, why did it arise across the globe, what roles do sexuality and violence play, how is gender inequality related to economic and political organization, how is gender inequality experienced proetitutes sustained in ordinary interactions, and so on.
The core materials focus on the most important works and ideas offering analytical insight into these questions. They have been selected because they have been highly influential or provide critical insight. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around a set of readings and an analytical task.
Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on explore the analytical boy prostitutes jackson each week. Boy prostitutes jackson will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. One or more students will have principal responsibility for each reading and lead the discussion of that reading.
We will then collectively try to assess the analytical task through discussion. While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the approach in this class stresses doing and discussing actual analyses of how and why gender inequality works.
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Even as we discuss the works in which prstitutes present their ideas, we will stress learning the worth and weight of ideas as analytic tools. All class meetings are organized as discussions. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on gender inequality. Boy prostitutes jackson week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part prostitutess the course.
The recommended and related readings represent what someone seeking to specialize in this area would read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and to look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. Any student lacking a background in gender studies, particularly sociological, is likely to benefit from reading through a standard textbook in the area--I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society which I use in undergraduate classes.
Note the there are no books required for purchase for this class. To simplify navigating, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible when you scroll through this. The content of the subsections are hidden so that the beginning appearance of the is similar to a standard syllabus until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear.
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While this organization is helpful for negotiating the most of the time, it can be an obstacle to searching the for example, for a particular article as searches on a web will ignore any hidden material. To overcome this. Simply reload the to collapse all the "hidden" sections to their usual look. The table of contents near the top of the will work to aid speedy to any section.
Clicking the Table of Contents button always available in the lower right corner will prosittutes to the table of contents from anyplace. To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality.
How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general prostiitutes to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience. Bot, what counts as gender inequality?
Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? Can we systematically and consistently capture the ways that systems or instances of gender inequality differ in content or character?
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We need tools, both theoretical and empirical, to qualify and quantify gender inequality if we hope to understand and explain it. Boy prostitutes jackson inequality is expressed and reinforced or challenged in every interaction between women and men and in many interactions among those of the same sex. This pattern is true for all forms of social inequality and social distinction, but is more striking to gender theorists because kinship and sexuality make male-female interactions so frequent.
We want to consider how people experience and act out gender in their day-to-day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?
How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? Although scholars disagree if women have ever been fully equal or had higher status in any society, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies, although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This strong pattern jjackson difficult questions jaackson how we explain the prevalence of male dominance, questions for which no answers have yet gained a consensus.
The "origins" problem asks how we can explain the apparently independent rise of gender inequality in societies all over the boy prostitutes jackson. The universality problem asks why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies.
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Together, these inescapably lead to asking how biological differences influence gender inequality, particularly how they have an influence under prostituhes conditions and not under others. They also force us to ask how explaining the "origins" of gender inequality relates to explaining the "persistence" of gender inequality. How theories handle these issues is decisive for their form and effectiveness.
Theories sometimes boy prostitutes jackson to sidestep these questions, but avoidance is an unrealistic strategy because sooner or later efforts to apply the theories or contend with challenges bring these issues to the surface. Family and kinship institutions are everywhere crucial to the status of women and men and to their cultural identities.
Women and men have strong and lasting relationships as spouses, as parents and children, and as brothers and sisters. Kinship rules define relationships at birth while marriage creates bonds between adults and often kinship groups. Family structures vary considerably, but commonly involve living together, pooling of resources, and interests bonded through a shared fate.
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That such links between women and men can coexist with severe gender inequality prostitutds analytically challenging. Not surprisingly, a lot of theoretical and empirical work has sought to disentangle and explain these relationships. Probably the two general issues in the modern world that have received the most attention proxtitutes the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the interdependence between inequality within families and the gender inequality that exists outside families, particularly within economic and political processes.
We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly. Jwckson this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis. Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism.
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Even as they expressly reject the possibility of consequential inherent differences bog women and men, theoretical analyses of gender inequality habitually build on gender differences. For some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics; for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men.
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Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality. It may be considered as a possible motivating cause for inequality, examined for the ways it byo or is effected by gender inequality, or incorporated as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially everyone recognizes sexuality as critically important to gender inequality, but it eludes comprehensive analysis.
Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some boy prostitutes jackson point toward violence as an initial cause. boh
A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question.
Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Essentially all analyses of gender inequality give great importance to the economy. Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions.
Sometimes this is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three.
Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions jcakson of interests, ideology, circumstance, opportunity, and constraint. As structure and as actor, the boy prostitutes jackson has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, by its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of gender inequality.
States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of boy prostitutes jackson acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions such as welfare policies or agricultural supportsa state influences the relative economic status of different groups.
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By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.
States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When ificant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality.
A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. To some degree, those "in" the state elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated prostotutes decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus.